A Dutch example of New Education: Philipp Abraham Kohnstamm (1875-1951) and his ideas about the New School

Marloes Hoencamp, John Exalto, Abraham de Muynck, Doret de Ruyter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic


Philipp Abraham Kohnstamm (1875–1951) was one of the founders of Dutch educational science and a key figure in the New Education movement in the Netherlands. This article has three aims: first, to depict Kohnstamm as an insightful example in the process of sharing and adopting ideas around New Education and the implementation of these ideas in the Dutch context. Second, to demonstrate that the New School ideas Kohnstamm embraced − such as the Dalton Plan (of Helen Parkhurst, 1887−1952) and the Gary Plan (of William Wirt, 1874–1938) − fitted in with his philosophy of personalism; this philosophy also explains why he did not choose Montessori education, which was very popular in the Netherlands during his time. Third, that this philosophy at the same time partly explains the initial limited impact Kohnstamm had on Dutch education.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHistory of Education
Early online date25 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2022


  • Kohnstamm
  • New Education
  • personalism
  • Dalton Plan
  • Gary Plan

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