Spiritual well-being and associated factors in Dutch patients with advanced cancer

Annelieke Damen, N.J. Raijmakers, Janneke Van Roij, Anja Visser, Marieke Van den Beuken-Everdingen, Evelien Kuip, Hanneke W. M. Van Laarhoven, Lobke Van Leeuwen-Snoeks, Annemieke Van der Padt-Pruijsten, Tineke Smilde, Carlo J. W. Leget, George Fitchett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Context: Palliative care aims to support patients’ spiritual needs with the intention of promoting their spiritual well-being (SWB), an important dimension of quality of life. SWB is one of the less-studied dimensions of QoL, particularly in a secular country such as the Netherlands. Objectives: In this study we aimed to get a better understanding of SWB in Dutch patients with advanced cancer. We therefore examined its prominence and associated factors. Methods: We used the baseline data of a cohort study on experienced quality of care and quality of life (eQuiPe study), which included 1,103 patients with advanced cancer. In addition to sociodemographic and religious/spiritual characteristics, study measures comprised the SWB subscales Meaning, Peace, and Faith of the revised FACIT-Sp-12, spiritual problems and needs (PNPCsv), quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and satisfaction with healthcare professionals’ interpersonal skills (INPATSAT-32). Results: On average, patients experienced quite a bit of Meaning (8.9, SD 2.3), a little bit to somewhat Peace (6.8, SD 2.7), and very low levels of Faith (2.9, SD 3.7). Two-thirds (71%) of patients reported one or more spiritual problems, for which the majority (54%) wanted to receive attention. In the final multivariable models, only a few factors were associated with SWB, such as greater spiritual needs with lower levels of Meaning and Peace. Conclusion: Dutch patients with advanced cancer experience medium to low levels of Meaning, Peace, and Faith. More attention for their SWB is warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-414
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Issue number3
Early online date14 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Spiritual well-being
  • cancer
  • palliative care
  • quality of life
  • religion
  • spirituality

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