The Content Validity of the Items Related to the Social and Spiritual Dimensions of the Utrecht Symptom Diary-4 Dimensional From a Patient's Perspective: A Qualitative Study

de S. Vries, T. Lormans, de E. Graaf, Carlo J. W. Leget, S. Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic


dimensions. The Utrecht Symptom Diary-4 Dimensional (USD-4D) is an instrument that can be used to monitor symptoms
and needs in the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions and to optimize communication between patients
and caregivers.
Objective. To assess the content validity of the USD-4D items related to the social and spiritual dimensions from a patient’s
perspective, measured in terms of comprehensibility, relevance, and comprehensiveness.
Methods. An explorative qualitative study was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews and thematic analysis.
Twelve participants (male N ¼ 7, 53e87 years old) with an estimated life expectancy of less than one year were recruited in two
home care services: a general hospital and a hospice.
Results. The instructions, items, and response options were comprehensible for almost all participants. The meaning that
was provided to the items was expressed in themes: maintaining personal identity and autonomy, resilience, letting go,
perceived balance in one’s life, and death and afterlife. This corresponds with the intended meaning. The items were relevant
at some points in time. Not all participants had needs for personal care during the interviews. Participants found the USD-4D
comprehensive, no key concepts related to the social or spiritual dimensions appeared to be missing.
Conclusions. The USD-4D constitutes a content valid PROM from the patient’s perspective. The items support patients in
identifying needs in the social and spiritual dimensions and in the conversation to further explore these needs
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-294
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Early online date7 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2021

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